{ "objects" : [ { "embark_ID" : 630, "URL" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Objects-1/info/630", "Disp_Access_No" : "11-MM-14", "_AccNumSort1" : "", "Disp_Create_DT" : "1820s", "_Disp_Start_Dat" : "1820", "_Disp_End_Date" : "1820", "Disp_Title" : "Peale's Museum Hollow-Cut Silhouette Portrait of Louisa", "Alt_Title" : "", "Obj_Title" : "", "Series_Title" : "", "Disp_Maker_1" : "Edward Williams Clay", "Sort_Artist" : "Clay, Edward Williams", "Disp_Dimen" : "5 x 3 3/4 in. (12.7 x 9.5 cm)", "Disp_Height" : "5 in.", "Disp_Width" : "3 3/4 in.", "Dimen_Extent" : "", "Medium" : "White paper", "Support" : "black background", "Disp_Medium" : "White paper on black background", "Info_Page_Comm" : "<SPAN>Gallery Label:<BR/><BR/>Silhouette portraits on paper were a very inexpensive means of creating a profile likeness of an individual. With this kind of portrait, the artist would cut a profile of the sitter in paper, then mount it on a dark paper or fabric for contrast. <BR/><BR/>In response to the popular demand for silhouette portraits during the 18th century, a device called the physiognotrace was invented to mechanize the process for quickly producing multiple profiles at once. Using this device, a person would sit facing sideways while an artist-operator guided a dowel along their profile, causing a pointed instrument to impress an outline onto a twice-folded sheet of white paper to create four exact profiles at once. The artist would often enhance the final portraits with freehand cutting of the hair and eyelashes.<BR/><BR/>In 1803, when the physiognotrace was introduced at Charles Willson Peale’s Museum in Philadelphia, about 8,800 people (80% of visitors) purchased a set of profile portraits, at a cost of 8 cents each. That same year, Raphaelle Peale also travelled to the American South with a physiognotrace, making silhouette portraits more widely available to the general public. <BR/><BR/>This silhouette portrait bears an embossment from Charles Willson Peale’s Museum.<SPAN STYLE="font-family:'Calibri';font-size:13pt"><BR/></SPAN></SPAN>", "Dedication" : "Gift of Paul F. Betz, '61", "Copyright_Type" : "", "Disp_Obj_Type" : "MIXED MEDIA", "Creation_Place2" : "", "Department" : "", "Obj_Name" : "", "Period" : "", "Style" : "", "Edition" : "", "Curator" : "", "Images": [ { "ImagePath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/images/11-MM-14_front.jpg", "ThumbnailPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Thumbnails/11-MM-14_front.jpg", "PreviewPath" : "https://webkiosk.gallerysystems.com/Media/Previews/11-MM-14_front.jpg", "IIIF_URL": "http://iiif.gallerysystems.com/11-MM-14_front.jpg", "IsPrimary" : "1", "_SurrogateID" : "6066", "Image_Type" : "", "Photo_Credit" : "", "Remarks" : "", "View" : "" } , ] }, ] }